Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany. Berlin is also one of the two state-cities of Germany. As of 2008, 3.5 million people live in the city where 4.3 million people lived before World War II. Berlin is located in northern Germany, the sandy region between the Spree and Havel rivers. In 1943 Germany was divided into two, and Berlin was divided into East Berlin and West Berlin. East Berlin was the capital of East Germany, and West Berlin was a province of West Germany. Built in 1961 by East Germany and known as the "Shame Wall", the Berlin Wall was a symbol of Germany's division. The exciting, high-tempo Berlin is a city that changes daily. With its unique cultural facilities, legendary nightlife and lush nature, the city will fascinate you. Berlin is also one of the most important cities in the world in the field of arts. Besides the three operas, the Philharmonic, many theaters, the concert hall and the library, Berlin Film Festival, festival week and theater days attract all art lovers to Berlin. Berlin is not only the political capital of Germany, it is also the capital of culture.